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K-4 Phonics/Spelling #2

Making New Words By Changing The Beginning Letter


Grades K-1

Framework

R.11.K.3 Understand that a predictable relationship exists between written letters and spoken sounds

R.11.K.5 Identify the most common sound associated with individual letters.

R.11.K.6 Use letter-sound matches to decode simple words

R.11.1.4 Decode single syllable words using initial and final consonants, short vowel patterns, onsets and rimes, and blends and diagraphs in continuous text

W.6.1.4 Use phonetic strategies to spell unknown words (i.e., segmentation and analogies to known words)

 

Rationale

Children need to understand that letters can be manipulated to make different words.

Materials

  • Teacher: Overhead projector and magnetic letters

  • Children: Magnetic letters or letter cards



Direct Explanation

We are going to learn to make new words out of old words! All we have to do is listen carefully to the sounds we hear in a word and then make a new word by changing the sound at the beginning of the word.”



Model

  1. Say, “If I say cat without the /c/, I have the word at. You try. Say cat without the /c/.”

  2. Make the known word cat on the overhead. Run your finger under the word and have the children read it with you.

  3. Pointing to the word say, “What letter would I take away from cat to make at?”

  4. The children should respond, “c”. Demonstrate by taking away the c, showing the students that the word at remains.

  5. Say, “If I add the letter m to the word at, I would have mat.” Demonstrate moving the letter m and adding it to at to make a new word.

  6. Summarize by saying, “By taking away the beginning letter and adding a new one you can make new words. This can help you when you read and write because if you know cat, but the word you read is mat, think of the part you know and change the beginning sound to m. “

 

Guided Practice

  1. Make the known word hat on the overhead. Run your finger under the word and have the children read it with you.

  2. Pointing to the word say, “What letter would I take away from hat to make at?” The children should respond, “h”

  3. Have student make the word hat with their letters, then take off the letter “h” and have at left. Have them put the letter “s” in front of at to make the word sat. Continue this process with other words and initial letters.

  4. To provide additional scaffolding as needed, you can make other words, in addition to sat, but go back to the known word hat before changing the letter.

Independent Practice

Students will change the beginning letter in words, using magnetic letters or other letter manipulatives in an independent Literacy Corner activity.

Assessment/Application

Observe students manipulating initial letters to make different words in reading and writing.



Note: Additional lessons using the format above could be developed around these skills:

  • Make new words by changing the last letter. (cat,cap)

  • Make new words by changing the medial vowel. (cat, cut)

  • Make new words by changing the beginning to a cluster. (day, stay)

  • Make new words by changing the ending to a cluster. (fan, fast)

     

    Make sure one substitution type is established before teaching another.

Tier II Additions

  • Allow student to assist teacher by giving overhead letters to teacher upon request during modeling activity.

  • Provide Braille magnetic letters for students with visual impairments during guided and independent practice.

  • Provide student a seat close to teacher and signal students with hearing impairments to focus on teacher’s lips during modeling activity. Remind student of the letter sound mouth shapes during the modeling.

  • Pair a visual student with a student who is visually impaired during guided activity.

  • Allow student to wear headphones to muffle sounds of other students or room noised during independent activity. Do not use if student has sensory defensiveness without checking with occupational therapist.

  • Allow student to stand during guided and independent activities.

  • Work with a peer during independent work.

  • Use jumbo magnetic letters when building words.

  • Use slant boards with the magnetic letters for students in wheelchairs or students with vestibular difficulties.

  • Pair with a more proficient reader and use the Echo Reading technique for sounding and building words.

  • Color code lines at the bottom of magnetic letters so that student does not mix up similar letters, i.e., b & d or p & q.

  • Provide picture mnemonics for each letter making sure that the same picture is used consistently with the same letter in every activity.

  • Use words in the activity that begin with continuous sounds such as /s/, /m/, and /f/ that are easier to pronounce than stop sounds such as /p/, /b/, and /k/.

  • Provide immediate reinforcement for correct work.

  • Include self-correction sheets with activities when possible to provide immediate feedback and encourage self-monitoring.

  • Have student make three different words from one that he knows using consonant sounds he has mastered using letter card templates with audio modeling (tape/computer generated multimedia materials, e.g., hat (s at, m at, f at).

  • Provide student with four familiar consonant grapheme and one vowel grapheme and have him make three words, e.g., s, m, i, and t. (sit, mit, it, Tim).

 

Tier II Assessment

Reduce the number of options student chooses from when selecting the change in initial consonants.

Tier III Accommodations/Modifications

  • Use letters of various textures such as wood, sandpaper, foam, etc. in a small group setting. This allows the student to feel the letters.

  • Allow student to direct peer to physically manipulate magnetic letters if student has motor problems that interfere with this activity.

  • Ask speech pathologist to pre-teach letter sound mouth shapes of words that will be used in modeling activity to students with hearing impairments.

  • Have the words written on cards and let them put letters on top of letters on cards during independent activities.

  • Provide a guide that consists of letters and a corresponding picture for beginning letter to assist students working in the guided and independent activities.

  • Allow another student to assist a student who is in the early stages of developing phoneme awareness by pulling down word families or provide a card with the word written except for the missing letter so that the student’s task is to pull down the initial position letter only. After automaticity is reached with the initial position, student should master the word family.

  • Pre-teach in a small group those students that are struggling substantially with sound associations, teaching only the first five consonants (t, m, k, f, p) and one short vowel (a as in apple). Use magnetic letters to create a variety of word family combinations using these five consonants and the selected short vowel (i.e., pat, fat, mat) that the student can decode. Mix up similar letters, i.e., b & d, p & q.

  • Allow student to work in a study carrel during independent work.

  • Reinforce by using small group activities to drill beginning, middle, and ending sounds to make transfer to word family.

  • Have student sound out each letter (with audio support as needed) in a two or three letter word as he manipulates letters on a magnetic board, arranging letter cards based on a visual template or pattern.

 

Tier III Assessment

With the word family remaining constant the student will change the initial letter to reflect the change in sound. Reduce the number of options student chooses from when selecting the change in initial consonants. Don’t use voiced and voiceless pairs such as /t/ and /d/ or /k/ and /g/.

 

Tier IV and V Modifications

  • Use any of the previously listed accommodations or modifications that are needed by the student.

  • Break lesson into shorter time periods and the task into smaller chunks.

  • Pre-teach in a small group or 1:1 setting. Teach only the first three consonants (t, m, p) and one short vowel (a as in apple). Use magnetic letters to create a variety of word family combinations using these three consonants and the selected short vowel (i.e., pat &mat).

  • Add two consonants /k/ and /f/ only after others are learned.

 

For Tier V – Teach in short sessions and multiple times daily

 

Tier IV and V Assessment

With the word family remaining constant the student will change the initial letter to reflect the change in sound. Reduce the number of options student chooses from when selecting the change in initial consonants.

 

Resources

Apprenticeship In Literacy, Dorn, French, and Jones (1998)

Word Journeys, Ganske (2000)

 

Copyright © 2006 Arkansas Department of Education. All rights reserved. School districts may reproduce these materials for in-school student use only. No resale. Materials may not be reproduced, distributed or sold for commercial use or profit. ADE employees are not authorized to waive these restrictions.

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